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The immune response brings a high nutritional cost to body function that may reduce cow performance (more on this in another article). Cells of the immune response are unusual in that they exclusively require glucose to meet their energy needs.
They also require amino acids to support synthesis of cell signal molecules (immune mediators), antibody production, and cell division. Other nutrients such as trace minerals like copper, zinc and selenium are required for proper immune cell functionality. Vitamins A and E have historically been associated with proper immune function, and now vitamin D is considered an important immune modulator as well.
Fatty acids may either promote or suppress immune cell function. Short-chain fatty acids such as ketone bodies associated with the disease ketosis have been shown to suppress immune cell responsiveness. As can be seen, the immune system is critically dependent upon proper nutrition. Improving nutrition, then, offers potential for improving immune function at critical times.
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